Medical Definitions

Aetiology. Study of the cause or causes of a disease or abnormal condition.


Antigen. Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.. An antigen can be a foreign protein, toxin, bacteria, or other substance.
Atrophy. A continuous decline of a body part or tissue, usually a muscle, following a period of disuse or immobility
Antibodies. Antibodies are part of the immune system, they are proteins which are produced by white blood cells, their task is to circulate in the body and to attach itself to any foreign particles (antigen) which it may come across.
Autoimmune. Of, relating to, or caused by antibodies or T cells that attack molecules, cells, or tissues of the organism producing them
Autoimmune process. A process where the body's immune system attacks and destroys body tissue that it mistakes for foreign matter
Autonomic. Acting or occurring involuntarily, : relating to, affecting, or controlled by the autonomic nervous system, : having an effect upon tissue supplied by the autonomic nervous system.
Axonal. A usually long and single nerve-cell process that usually conducts impulses away from the cell body.
Demyelinating. Causing or characterized by the loss or destruction of myelin.
Demyelination. The state resulting from the loss or destruction of myelin ; also : the process of such loss or destruction.
Dysaesthesia. Impairment of sensitivity especially to touch.
Dyspnoea. Difficult or laboured respiration.
Epidemiology.The sum of the factors controlling the presence or absence of a disease or pathogen..
Fasciculation. Involuntary contractions or twitchings of groups of muscle fibers. Fasciculations can occur in normal individuals without an associated disease or condition and can also occur as a result of illness, such as muscle cramps, nerve diseases, and metabolism imbalances.
Heterogeneous. Composed of parts having dissimilar characteristics or properties
Hyperhidrosis. Excessive sweating. Hidrosis meaning sweating, so hyperhidrosis is too much sweating.
Hypertrophy. Excessive development of an organ or part ; specifically : increase in bulk (as by thickening of muscle fibers) without multiplication of parts.
Hypothyroidism. Deficient activity of the thyroid gland ; also : a resultant bodily condition characterized by lowered metabolic rate and general loss of vigor.
Ischemia. Localized tissue anemia due to obstruction of the inflow of arterial blood (as by the narrowing of arteries by spasm or disease).
Motor neuron. A neuron that passes from the central nervous system toward or to a muscle and conducts an impulse that causes movement.
Myasthenia; muscular debility. Myasthenia gravis: a disease characterized by progressive weakness and exhaustibility of voluntary muscles without atrophy or sensory disturbance and caused by an autoimmune attack on acetylcholine receptors at neuromuscular junctions.
Monoclonal antibodies. Substances that can locate and bind to cancer cells wherever they are in the body.
Myogenic. Originating in muscle.
Myokymia. Continuous involuntary muscle twitchings that give the appearance of wormlike rippling of muscle. The muscle contractions are involuntary (spontaneous) and brief. The term myokymia was coined by F. Schultze in 1895 to describe continuous, slow, undulating muscular contractions in small muscles of hands and feet.
Nerve conduction test. Procedure to determine nerve impulse generation.
Neurogenic. Originating in nervous tissue.
Neuromyotonia. Neuromyotonia is a very rare condition of spontaneous, continuous muscle activity of peripheral nerve origin. It is characterized clinically by muscle twitching at rest (visible myokymia), cramps that can be triggered by voluntary or induced muscle contraction, and impaired muscle relaxation (pseudomyotonia). Often, patients also have symptoms of excessive sweating and more rarely mild muscular weakness, and paraesthesia.

Neuron. One of the cells that constitute nervous tissue, that have the property of transmitting and receiving nervous impulses.
Neuropathy. The study of the nervous system. An abnormal and usually degenerative state of the nervous system or nerves, also, a systemic condition (as muscular atrophy) that stems from a neuropathy.
Paresthesia. An abnormal sensation of the skin, such as numbness, tingling, pricking, burning, or creeping on the skin that has no objective cause, usually associated with injury or irritation of a sensory nerve or nerve root.
Paraneoplastic. Caused by or resulting from the presence of cancer in the body but not the physical presence of cancerous tissue in the part or organ affected, paraneoplastic effects on the central nervous system.
Phenotype. The visible properties of an organism.
Polyneuropathy. A disease of nerves especially a noninflammatory degenerative disease of nerves usually caused by toxins.
Pathogenic. Causing or capable of causing disease, pathogenic microorganisms.
Pathogenesis. The development of a disease. The origin of a disease and the chain of events leading to that disease.
Thymoma.
A usually benign tumor of the thymus.Thymomas are the most common tumor of the thymus.